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GMAT备考:RC里面的一段式文章如何处理?

来源:雷哥GMAT  2017-05-18 11:18    点击量: 阅卷人出题,全真线下MBA公益模考

MBA中国网GMAT阅读有长阅读和短阅读之分,短阅读,尤其是一段式文章,并不像它的名字那样简单,相反,大家在遇到一段式文章的时候,都会存在一个普遍的难点——结构不清晰。


GMAT阅读里面, 只有理清了文章结构,才能够顺利的应对接下来的题目,而一段式文章通常都是宝宝们在GMAT考试里面遇到的第一篇文章,如何掌握住题目,确保不掉库尤为重要,所以小编今天以一道例题来给大家讲解一下,关于一段式文章如何处理!


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Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meeting at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction as they grind past eachother, but in 1965 Henyey found that temperatures in drill holes near the fault were not as elevated as had been expected. Some geologists wondered whether the absence of friction-generated heat could be explained by the kinds of rock composing the fault. Geologists' pre-1965 assumptions concerning heat generated in the fault were based on calculations about common varieties of rocks, such as limestone and granite; but "weaker" materials, such as clays, had already been identified in samples retrieved from the fault zone. Under normal conditions, rocks composed of clay produce far less friction than do other rock types.In 1992 Byerlee tested whether these materials would produce friction 10 to 15 kilometers below the Earth's surface. Byerlee found that when clay samples were subjected to the thousands of atmospheres of pressure they would encounter deep inside the Earth, they produced as much friction as was produced by other rock types. The harder rocks push against each other, the hotter they become; in other words, pressure itself, not only the rocks' properties, affects frictional heating. Geologists therefore wondered whether the friction between the plates was being reduced by pockets of pressurized water within the fault that push the plates away from each other.




解析:


一段式文章,因为本身篇幅不长,所以可以采取从头开始看的办法来处理,理清楚结构和层次。


首先第一句Prior to 1965 geologists assumed that the two giant rock plates meeting at the San Andreas Fault generate heat through friction as they grind past eachother, but in 1965 Henyey found that temperatures in drill holes near the fault were not as elevated as had been expected. 这句话有两个点需要注意。首先是but前面的, 1965年之前的地理学家的assume的内容,也就是assumption猜想(SAF处的两大岩层通过摩擦产热); but之后,but就是代表转折了, 出现的Henry的意外发现(SAF处的断层并没有想象中的那么高)就是对前面的地理学家的assumption进行的转折。


有了Henry这个意外发现, some geologists 就开始对这一发现进行了猜想:Some geologists wondered whether the absence of friction-generated heat could be explained by the kinds of rock composing the fault. (是否可以用岩石种类这个原因去解释Henry的发现)


既然猜想的是岩石种类这个原因, 那就对岩石种类这个因素进行一下背景介绍:Geologists' pre-1965 assumptions concerning heat generated in the fault were based on calculations about common varieties of rocks, such as limestone and granite; but "weaker" materials, such as clays, had already been identified in samples retrieved from the fault zone. Under normal conditions, rocks composed of clay produce far less friction than do other rock types 地理学家的1965年之前的猜想都是基于common rocks的,也就是硬的岩石;但是在软的岩石早已被发现于断层中,只是没有被考虑进去。通常情况下,软的岩石的摩擦力比硬的低。(感觉岩石种类的猜想可行的样子~)


接着1992年B这个人做实验就验证前面这个猜想:In 1992 Byerlee tested whether these materials would produce friction 10 to 15 kilometers below the Earth's surface. Byerlee found that when clay samples were subjected to the thousands of atmospheres of pressure they would encounter deep inside the Earth, they produced as much friction as was produced by other rock types. The harder rocks push against each other, the hotter they become; in other words, pressure itself, not only the rocks' properties, affects frictional heating. 实验结果是:1. 摩擦力不管是硬是软,摩擦力一样,推翻了岩石种类猜想 2. 互相压的力越大, 产热越多。


由于前面这个第2个实验结果,地理学家提出了另外一个猜想:Geologists therefore wondered whether the friction between the plates was being reduced by pockets of pressurized water within the fault that push the plates away from each other.(岩层之间的水→岩层压力变小→摩擦产热降低→解释henry发现)


所以这篇文章的一个文章结构就是意外发现→解释。再细分一点就是 意外发现→解释1→(通过实验推翻解释1)→ (通过实验结果)提出解释2


GMAT属于一个逻辑思维的测试,阅读也不例外,即使是看似不清不楚的一段式文章也存在紧密的逻辑关系,多练习理文章逻辑脉络自然就能够明白一段式文章的套路,从而面对一段式文章也能从容不迫!


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